Introduction Vaccination of chickens is an effective and inexpensive way to combat infectious diseases of poultry. An effective vaccination program, in a complex of bio-protection measures, ensures successful prevention of various diseases in poultry production. The result of vaccination to chickens depends largely on the training and experience of the staff, the proper selection and use of vaccines.
The content of the article:
- 1 Vaccinations for chickens
- 2 Vaccination of chickens using drinking water (feeding)
- 3 Vaccinations in chickens in the first days at home
- 4 Vaccine dosages and amount of water
- 5 Vaccination of chickens at home
- 6 Preparation of vaccine solution
- 7 Vaccination of broiler chickens
- 8 Filling water lines
- 9 Monitoring Vaccination Results
- 10 Do I need vaccinations chickens
- 11 Methods of droplet spraying vaccine
- 12 Calculation of vaccine dosage and amount of water
- 13 Preparation of vaccine solution
- 14 Preparing a house
- 15 Monitoring vaccination results for chickens
It should be borne in mind that vaccine prophylaxis cannot compensate for biological safety violations and poor sanitary conditions. Therefore, vaccination programs cannot fully protect a bird that is under stress or is in unsanitary conditions.
The main task of vaccination of any party of poultry is to form a stable immunity against infectious diseases and to ensure the healthy development of poultry. Vaccines for poultry are immunobiological preparations that cause an immune response in birds. There are various methods of vaccination, some of which are described below.
Chicken vaccination using drinking water (feeding)
The method of vaccination with the use of drinking water consists in feeding a calculated amount of the vaccine solution through a population of broilers through a dosing unit.
- Vaccinations of chickens are carried out by three veterinary orderlies (vaccinators) under the supervision of a veterinarian.
- Only a healthy bird is vaccinated. Sick and weak birds are rejected.
- Raise the waterline to a height that prevents the bird from consuming water. In the summer months, 60-90 minutes before vaccination, in winter, 90-120 minutes.
Prepare the house for vaccination, for which you personally make sure that all the elements of the drinking system are in order and ready for work, all medicines, disinfectants and chlorine-containing substances are removed from drinking water 24 hours before vaccination to chickens. Internal cavities of watering lines should not contain organic residues (biofilms, mineral deposits).
Watering systems are in a horizontal position, which eliminates the appearance of air congestion and improves the provision of the entire flock of birds with vaccine. Together with the mechanic, rinse the dispenser and the drinking line under pressure with clean water without disinfectants according to the method established in the production. Shut off the valve that supplies water to the nipple drinking lines, open the valves of the end assemblies on all the drinking lines so that the water is completely drained.
- Prepare clean inventory and materials for preparing vaccine stock solution. The plastic bucket, volumetric glasses, bottles with a vaccine should be clean, without traces of detergents and disinfectants. The integrity of the vaccine vials should not be compromised.
Vaccinations in chickens in the early days at home
Vaccine dosage and amount of water
The number of doses of vaccine should be equal to the poultry population in the house. Due to the fact that part of the vaccine will be lost in the medicator and water supply lines, it is necessary to increase the dosage by 300-700 doses per poultry house. Vaccines against NB and IBB can be used simultaneously.
For example, you need to vaccinate 23,500 broiler chickens. The vaccine against IBB is available in bottles of 4000 doses, So, for vaccination, chickens need to be taken = 4000 doses x 6 bottles = 24 000 doses per chicken house.
The amount of purified (demineralized) water for preparing a stock solution of vaccines for a specific house is calculated by the formula:
The number of heads of broiler chickens is multiplied by the broiler chickens age (days) and multiplied by 1.6
Water ml = 100
where 1.6 is the percent input, installed on the dispenser (1.6 liters per 100 liters of water)
An example of calculating the amount of water for a house is 23,500 heads, age 21 days.
23500 x 21 x 1.6
Water ml = 7896
The calculation of the required amount of purified water is carried out by a veterinarian or a trained veterinary nurse directly in the house before preparing the mother vaccine solution.
Vaccination of chickens at home
Preparation of vaccine solution
Pour the calculated amount of water from the flask into a clean plastic bucket with measured risks. It is advisable to periodically assess the quality of water. If necessary, check the pH of the water used for vaccination. High pH (more than 7.5) or low pH (less than 6.0) can have a negative effect on the live vaccine.
To check whether the vaccine solution enters the watering system, 5 minutes before the vaccine is dissolved, add a vaccine stabilizer to the bucket of water that stains the water in a dark blue color. Stir it thoroughly using a plastic rod or another clean agitator. The amount of stabilizer is calculated on the amount of water consumed.
- The Hi – Light stabilizer is added at the rate of 2-3 tablets per poultry house of 20-27 thousand heads, and 1-2 tablets per poultry house of 11-15 thousand heads.
- Avi-Blue stabilizer is added at the rate of two caps on the house of 20-27 thousand heads and one and a half caps on the house of 11-15 thousand heads. This dosage of stabilizers will allow you to get a resistant blue color goiter and tongue.
Next, remove the aluminum caps from the vials. Under the water, open the rubber stoppers and fill the vials. Then rinse the vials several times. The dry pill of the vaccine should dissolve completely without the appearance of lumps.
Conducting vaccination of broiler chickens
- Place the bucket with the prepared stock solution of the vaccine under the mediator, lower the hose into it, set the dispenser to the “1.6” position.
- Reduce the lighting in the house to 5 – 7 lux, to eliminate unnecessary stress in the bird.
- The location of the performers on the house: 1) the first performer is located in the technical room next to the capacity of the vaccine stock solution; 2) the second performer is located in front of the house at the water line pressure regulators. If the pressure regulator is located in the middle part of the assembly of watering lines, then the second performer is located at the end assemblies of watering lines at the beginning of the house; 3) the third performer is in the back of the house at the end assemblies of the watering lines.
Fill the watering lines with the stock solution of the vaccine in the following sequence:
- as soon as all the performers are ready, the first performer opens the necessary water treatment system valves that ensure the passage of water from the system through the dispenser to the water lines. In the future, it controls the correct operation of the dispenser to reduce the level of the stock solution in the tank;
- the second performer, alternately opens the valves on the pressure regulators of the watering lines, ensuring that they are filled with the vaccine stock solution. Opening the valve on each subsequent watering line, he performs at the command of the third number, as the previous watering line is filled;
- the third contractor controls the moment of appearance of the stock solution of the vaccine at the end of the watering line by the appearance of a blue solution and timely closes the valve of the end assembly, excluding the discharge of the vaccine into the sewer ladder. Alternately, perform the above operations on each line of drinking.
- After filling all the watering lines, check that there is no free flow of vaccine solution from the nipples, joints and rubber seals of the elements of the watering line; filling the watering lines with the working solution of the vaccine (by clicking on the nipples at the beginning, middle and end of the watering line); sufficient flow throughness of the nipples (according to the method established in production).
- All deficiencies should be eliminated immediately with the assistance of technical personnel assigned to the house.
- Lower the watering line to a height that provides guaranteed access to the water for the entire poultry population. Check their horizontal position and, if necessary, make additional adjustments with the involvement of full-time staff assigned to the house.
- Feeding lines must be lowered to a height in accordance with the age of the bird, feeders filled with food for free access of the bird to the food.
- Increase the light level in the house to the level required for the day.
- Monitor the activity of water consumption by the bird.
- All water with vaccine should be drunk within one to one and a half hours. During feeding, make at least two rounds around the perimeter of the house to stimulate the birds to use the vaccine.
- After spending the entire vaccine, pour two liters of water into the container, rinse the container thoroughly and pump water into the watering line through the medicator.
Monitoring Vaccination Results
Conduct quality control of vaccination:
- take 20 chickens from different places of the hull;
- check the color of the language of each of the 20 birds. The tongue should be blue. The intensity of the color of the tongue depends on the amount of vaccine consumed, and thus indirectly indicates the correctness of vaccination;
- Chickens have been vaccinated satisfactorily if at least 90% of birds have a blue tongue and goiter.
For 30 minutes, boil empty bottles containing the vaccine and dispose of them in the order established in the production.
Do vaccines need chickens
The technique of droplet spraying vaccine
The method of vaccination to chickens with a large droplet spray consists in spraying a previously prepared aqueous solution of the vaccine in the form of a large droplet spray using a sprayer in the house.
- Vaccination of chickens. Preparatory work.
- Vaccination operations using the spray method in the house are carried out by 3 vaccinators in compliance with the rules established by this instruction. In the preparation and conduct of vaccination must be used work clothes.
- Ensure that the bird is healthy on the day of vaccination. In the house there is no sick, weak and clearly stunted bird.
- Knapsack sprayers, filters, nozzles should be washed with warm water without using detergents and disinfectants, then dried.
- Check the technical condition of the knapsack sprayer. Install orange nozzles on the sprayer boom to get a coarse spray with a droplet size of 235 microns. Pour 4 liters of clean water into the sprayer tank, create a pressure of about 2.0 bar and spray to a pre-selected clean surface. Check the spray pattern. The shape of the jet should be dense and continuous.
Calculation of vaccine dosage and amount of water
Vaccination of chickens and the dosage of the vaccine is calculated in accordance with the approved instructions for the use of vaccines in the amount of 1 dose per 1 chicken.
The number of doses of vaccine is equal to the number of birds in the house on the day of vaccination. Given the loss of vaccine on litter, an increase in the amount of vaccine by 300-700 doses per poultry house is allowed.
Example: The number of broiler chickens in the house is 19,500 heads.The number of doses of vaccine NB per house is 20,000 doses. In one bottle of 5000 doses. The required number of bottles for vaccination at the house = 5000 doses x 4 bottles = 20,000 doses per house.
The exact dosage of each vaccine used for each house is calculated by the veterinarian. The medical assistant writes out from the veterinary pharmacy the required number of vaccines to vaccinate the broiler chickens of the entire site and store the vaccines in the refrigerator.
On the day of vaccination, the number of vials of vaccine calculated at the house at T = 6-8 ° C is placed in a package with the number of the house and transferred to veterinary orderlies in a container with a cold element for vaccination of chickens.
The amount of demineralized water for preparing a vaccine solution for a specific house is 1.0 liter per 1000 doses.
An example of calculating the amount of purified water to prepare a solution of vaccines in the house. The number of chickens in the house is 19,500 heads Amount of water, l = 19,500 head x 1 liter = 19.5 liters
To prepare the vaccine solution, purified demineralized water of room temperature is used, which is delivered to the house in flasks.
Preparation of vaccine solution
From the flask to clean plastic buckets with measured risks pour the calculated amount of water. Remove aluminum caps from the vials; lower the vaccine vials under water, open the rubber stoppers of the vials under water; fill the bottles with water and rinse them several times. The dry pill of the vaccine should dissolve completely without the appearance of lumps.
Stir the prepared solution using a plastic rod; Pour the prepared vaccine solution into the sprayers and close the caps tightly; Using a lever, create a working pressure of 2.0 bar in the sprayer. This pressure should be maintained during the entire vaccination period.
Poultry house preparation
Dim the lighting on the house, then, without causing stress, disperse the bird to the left and right walls of the house. At the time of vaccination, give the dispatcher a command to turn off the heat generators (if any) and ventilation, close the vents and after fifteen minutes turn on the ventilation and open the vents. Fix shutdown and inclusion of the equipment, after completion of work.
Vaccination of chickens. Work
Vaccination operations in the poultry house should be carried out by a team of at least three people, in compliance with all veterinary and sanitary rules established at the plant, as well as the rules established by this instruction.
Vaccinators are distributed in the house as follows:
- the first and second performers put on knapsack spreier and vaccinate chickens;
- the third performer moves between the grouped rows of the bird and makes sure that it does not run away during the work.
Two performers, with knapsack sprayers, slowly move parallel to the grouped bird and spray the vaccine 30-40 cm above the chickens. While driving, care must be taken that the working pressure in the sprayers is maintained within 2.0 bar. Artists must go through the house twice the entire length without additional refilling of the sprayers with the vaccine. Each performer sprays only one side of the house.
The third executor needs to quietly move ahead of the vaccinators and adjust the group of birds that have broken off from the grouping places.
In the warm season, chickens are vaccinated early in the morning. Vaccination of chickens in the first days of life at home is also carried out in the morning.
Monitoring vaccination results for chickens
If necessary, check the degree of coverage of the bird with a large droplet spray. Coverage is considered satisfactory if broiler chickens have evenly hydrated plumage.
The veterinarian should monitor the bird after vaccination. On the sixth and seventh day after inoculation of the chickens, the veterinarian should check for the presence of a post-vaccination reaction in broiler chickens for trachea and mortality levels in the house.
For 30 minutes, boil used vaccine vials and dispose of them in accordance with the procedure established at the factory.
Sprayers and all equipment used for vaccination, thoroughly rinse with plenty of warm tap water without the use of detergents and disinfectants.
The veterinarian (paramedic) must make the necessary records of vaccination:
- a mark on vaccination in the wall (date and name of the vaccines used);
- preparation of the “Act of vaccination” (date, number of poultry houses, routine vaccination of chickens, names and number of doses of vaccines used).